Research comprises creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student’s research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc.
Working as a researcher is exciting and rewarding – yet can be demanding, especially if you are an early career researcher or have family responsibilities. With your time at a premium, ready access to relevant information about career management and related topics is essential.
As evident by their title, Researchers main duty is to research. Using various methodologies and sources, Researchers must be able to obtain recent and relevant data for the research purposes.
The way they go about this will differ depending on the type of Researcher they are. Medical and scientific Researchers will often create and administer experiments to obtain data, while a market Researcher will look at sales trends and numbers. Most Researchers utilize the Internet to conduct some research, while others seek out peer-reviewed essays and articles. Researchers may interview subjects, scan databases, or locate rare texts to get the information they seek. The methods abound and most Researchers will use a variety of them throughout the course of their career.
The prime mission of private and state flagship research universities is to generate research and produce graduate students.
Northwest International University Policy on International Linkage research Agreements:
This policy outlines the principles and procedures governing the establishment of international linkageresearch agreements.
This policy applies to all international linkages that require formal agreements at the level of the institution or its administrative units.
- a) “Approval Officer” means the university administrator who approves a formal international linkage. This may be a dean, director, Vice-President, or the President.
- b) “Formal International Linkage” means a legal inter-institutional agreement between the NWIU (or any of its administrative units) and a university, government, institution, or agency in another country involving the commitment of institutional resources in such matters as collaborative research, joint academic and scholarly activities, exchange of publications, student and/or staff exchange programs, and collaborative degree programs. Doubts about whether a formal agreement is required are to be resolved by the Vice-President Research & International (delegated to the Executive Director of the International Centre).
c) “Informal International Linkage” means a collegial relationship across international boundaries among individual faculty members, administrators, and/or students that involves no commitment of
d) “Institutional Resources” refers to the resources of the Northwest International University and its administrative units considered as institutional entities. “Institutional resources” include not only human and financial resources, but courses, academic programs, degrees, diplomas, and the like.
e) “Proponent” means the Northwest International University administrative unit(s) proposing a formal international linkage.
Research Policy Statement
4.1) Informal International Linkages are a widespread, normal, and desirable feature of academic life, and will often suffice to achieve the desired collaborative ends.
4.2) Formal International Linkages should be considered only when needed to provide the framework and support activities/programs for commitments of institutional resources.
4.3) Duplication and redundancy in formal international agreements should be avoided.
4.4) Proponents of a Formal International Linkage must demonstrate the value of the linkage and the availability and appropriateness of any institutional resources.
4.5) Formal International Linkages are approved by the most relevant and convenient approval officer, as determined by the Vice-Provost (Research) or designate, in consultation as necessary with General Counsel and other stakeholders. The Approval Officer for matters of academic programming is the Provost and Vice-President (Academic) or designate.
4.6) The Executive Director of the International Centre shall ensure that all formal linkage agreements are reported to the Provost and Vice-President (Academic) and the Vice-Provost (International).
5.1) Approval Authority
- a) ensure appropriate rigor and due diligence in the development or revision of this policy.
5.2) Approval Officer
- a) ensure that the proposed linkage “adds value,” especially in light of the academic and strategic plans of the University and the proponent unit(s);
- b) ensure that any requisite institutional resources are available and committed;
- c) ensure that all necessary legal agreements or MOUs are in place;
- d) sign, or secure the necessary signatures, on any such agreements or MOUs.
5.3) Executive Director, International Center
- a) develop, maintain, and update templates and check lists for formal international linkage agreements;
- b) work closely with proponents in developing proposed agreements;
- c) lead consultations to determine the appropriate “approval officer” for the proposed agreement;
- d) work with the General Counsel to secure necessary legal clearance;
- e) submit the completed proposal, with appropriate recommendations, to the approval officer, and report all completed agreements to the Vice-Provost (International) and to the Provost and Vice-President (Academic).
5.4) Implementation Authority
- a) ensure that University staff are aware of and understand the implications of this policy and related procedures;
- b) monitor compliance with the policy and related procedures;
- c) regularly review the policy and related procedures to ensure consistency in practice;
d) sponsor the revision of this policy and related procedures when necessary.
Fundamental of Northwest International University Researches
All of NWIU research relates in some way to the documentation and study of international non-profit organizations and their preoccupations. This section provides an overview of some of this work, and one can explore more specific topics of interest in more depth in other research areas.
Important work the NWIU undertakes on the theme of international associations include classifying and documenting organizations, the legal status in which these organizations work, documenting and reflecting on trends in international civil society, recording organizations’ executives’ biographies, and sustainable community and transformative conferencing Classifying and Documenting International Organizations
A central part of NWIU s work is to profile international non-governmental (INGOs) and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), including general information on their contact details, aims and activities. This information is maintained in the UIA’s extensive database of entries on international organizations which is made available in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Yearbook also has a bibliographic dimension, documenting international organizations’ publications (see Bibliography research), and a biographical dimension, documenting executives’ biographies (see below).
However, creating something like the Yearbook poses problems relating to how to classify the information and which categories to use. One such difficulty stems from the sheer variety of organizational forms which need to be considered. The page on Types of International Organization describes the classification of organizations designed specifically for the Yearbook and the logic behind this system.
A second difficulty arises because of the multiplicity of concerns international organizations have, and their different ways of working. This is especially true when their interlinkages and interdisciplinary nature preclude effective use of conventional approaches. A special functional classification system was therefore developed that has been used to organize that information in a ‘subject matrix’.
Trends in International Civil Society
Related to the documentation of international organizations carried out by the NWIU is the analysis and commentary of trends in civil society. The Yearbook of International Organizations records these trends through tracking geographical locations and subject interests of its bodies, and generating statistics and graphical interpretations of these phenomena.
Further analysis of the preoccupations of international organizations has been conducted in Transnational Associations, the NWIU ’s former journal, which addressed major problems within the perspective of international civil society, and particularly nongovernmental organizations profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations. It was intended to provide a forum for authoritative information and independent reflection on the increasing role played by non-state actors in the international system, and on its philosophical, political, economic or cultural implications. The approach is intrinsically interdisciplinary.
Other research conducted by the NWIU related to the tracking of activities of civil society is the recording of websites and online materials produced by and about these bodies. Resources are provided in our link directory, and include selected links to international organizations from the Yearbook of International Organizations, and web resources on global civil society.
Legal Status of International Organizations
An important area of NWIU ’s research into international organizations includes the legal context within which they operate.